Video: apostrophes – rule 1

Narration: An apostrophe. The first rule for using an apostrophe is to show possession, belonging or attachment. For example: As a child, if I had done anything wrong at school I would have been sent to the Principal’s office. That is, the office belonging to the Principal. Be aware that when the apostrophe follows an … Read more

Video: colons – rule 2

Narration: A colon is also used for when what follows proves or explains what is referred to before. For example: In most countries, governments have made a firm decision: they will no longer tolerate people who drive after they have been drinking.

Video: colons – rule 1

Narration: A colon. The first rule for using a colon is when it acts as an introduction to the information that follows. This information is often in a list format. For example: The government has three main responsibilities: to protect citizens, to maintain order, and to implement new laws. However, you need a complete clause … Read more

Video: semi colons – rule 2

Narration: The second rule for using a semi-colon is to separate items in a list when there is already punctuation. For example: There are a number of cities that already suffer from the problems of overcrowding, such as Mexico City, Mexico; Dhaka, Pakistan; and Lagos, Nigeria. Because there are commas between the city and the … Read more

Video: semi colons – rule 1

Narration: A semi-colon. We saw that when combining two sentences using for, and, nor, but, or, yet, or so we use a comma. However, when combining two sentences into one but NOT using these words, we use a semi colon. For example; An increasing number of students are attending university; therefore not all graduates will … Read more

Using commas exercise

Right , let’s see how you get on with this quick test! Click the link below to begin.

Video: commas – rule 4

Narration: The final rule for using a comma is when separating information which is not essential to the grammar of the sentence. For example: Public transport, such as trains and buses, is often rejected in favour of private modes of transport. If we remove the section in commas, the sentence is still OK: Public transport … Read more

Video: commas – rule 3

Narration: The third rule of using a comma is when combining two sentences into one using for, and, nor, but, or, yet, or so. For example: Some countries have lowered their taxes, yet the UK has increased them by 5%. However, we do not use a comma when we are using the same subject. For … Read more

Video: commas – rule 2

Narration: The second rule for using a comma is to mark an introductory phrase that is not part of the main sentence. For example, if the main sentence is Many graduates have difficulty obtaining a job, we could add the introductory phrase After leaving university – comma – many graduates have difficulty obtaining a job. … Read more

Video: commas – rule 1

Narration: A comma. There are four rules for when to use a comma. The first rule is to separate items in a list. For example: Taxes are used to pay for healthcare, education and national defence. It is important to note that using a comma between the last and second to last item on a … Read more