What are modal verbs?

Modal verbs Often in IELTS we are asked to give opinions on situations and make recommendations. We can do this using modal verbs. Modal verbs can be used to express:     obligation/freedom to act     certainty / deductions     ability As with many other words in the English language, a modal verb can be used … Read more

Summary of this lesson

In this lesson you should have learned… how to use modal verbs to express obligation and freedom to act how to use modal verbs to express certainty and deduction how to use modal verbs to express ability how to use modal verbs in their past, present and future forms that some modal verbs cannot be … Read more

Essential vocabulary for this lesson

To complete this lesson, you will need to know the following vocabulary. When you are sure you know all the words, continue to the next page. OBLIGATION CERTAINTY DEDUCTION NECESSITY ACQUIT REWARD SPONSORSHIP PENALTY REHABILITATION INTERVENE FRUSTRATING DISORDER

Aims of this lesson

By the end of this lesson, you will know: what modal verbs are how to use modal verbs to express obligation and freedom to act how to use modal verbs to express certainty and deduction how to use modal verbs to express ability how to use modal verbs in their past, present and future forms … Read more

Reported speech

Reported speech, also called indirect speech, is what happens when we are telling someone about what another person said. Here is an example of direct and reported speech: Direct speech: I don’t like this party. Reported or indirect speech: He said (that) he didn’t like the party. When changing direct speech into reported speech, there … Read more

Modals & the third conditional

We can follow the same pattern in other conditional structures to communicate the certainty of the effect in the main clause (third conditional). The third conditional type ‘If’ section of clause ‘Effect’ section showing… … certain effect …highly probable effect …a possible effect Example: If I had written a better essay, … I would have … Read more

Modals & the second conditional

We can follow the same pattern in other conditional structures to communicate the certainty of the effect in the main clause (second conditional).   The second conditional type ‘If’ section of clause ‘Effect’ section showing… … certain effect …highly probable effect …a possible effect Example: If the IELTS exam was easier, …students would get higher … Read more

Modals & the first conditional

We can follow the same pattern in other conditional structures to communicate the certainty of the effect in the main clause (first conditional).   The first conditional type ‘If’ section of clause ‘Effect’ section showing… … certain effect …highly probable effect …a possible effect Example: If the government introduces higher taxes, …many businesses will move … Read more

Video: using alternate modal verbs

Narration: Let’s consider the following sentence. Here, the writer believes that the government is highly likely to increase taxes (we know this from the use of 1st conditional). The use of will in the main clause tells us that the writer is certain that the effect of raising taxes will be that companies move their … Read more