Video: commas – rule 4

Narration: The final rule for using a comma is when separating information which is not essential to the grammar of the sentence. For example: Public transport, such as trains and buses, is often rejected in favour of private modes of transport. If we remove the section in commas, the sentence is still OK: Public transport … Read more

Video: commas – rule 3

Narration: The third rule of using a comma is when combining two sentences into one using for, and, nor, but, or, yet, or so. For example: Some countries have lowered their taxes, yet the UK has increased them by 5%. However, we do not use a comma when we are using the same subject. For … Read more

Video: commas – rule 2

Narration: The second rule for using a comma is to mark an introductory phrase that is not part of the main sentence. For example, if the main sentence is Many graduates have difficulty obtaining a job, we could add the introductory phrase After leaving university – comma – many graduates have difficulty obtaining a job. … Read more

Video: commas – rule 1

Narration: A comma. There are four rules for when to use a comma. The first rule is to separate items in a list. For example: Taxes are used to pay for healthcare, education and national defence. It is important to note that using a comma between the last and second to last item on a … Read more

Video: full stops

Narration: A full stop. There is only one rule when to use a full stop. It is to mark the end of a sentence. For example: Economic pressures often mean that larger businesses force small businesses to close.

Video: Types of punctuation

Narration: Academic writing – punctuation. If you are only looking for a mid level result in your IELTS test, ensuring all your punctuation is correct is not essential. However, if you are looking to get a high result you will need to make sure that you have written accurately throughout your essay. There are five … Read more

Summary of this lesson

In this lesson you should have learned… about the different types of punctuation the four rules that govern using commas the four rules that cover semi colons the two rules for using colons the two rules that apply to apostrophes Now take the end of lesson review

Essential vocabulary for this lesson

To complete this lesson, you will need to know the following vocabulary. When you are sure you know all the words, continue to the next page. STRIKE TOLERATE RESTRICT EXPOSE IMPLEMENT MAINTAIN BENEFICIAL ANNUL

Aims of this lesson

By the end of this lesson, you will know: about the different types of punctuation the rules for using commas accurately the rules for when to use semi colons the rules for colons the rules for how to use apostrophes

Direct and indirect questions

When asking for information in English you can use direct and indirect questions. There are differences in sentence structure and levels of politeness and formality. In English, a basic question can be formed using either an auxiliary verb or a question word. For example: Does he like swimming? (Auxiliary verb) Where is the library? (Question … Read more