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Read the text below and then label the diagram that follows. Type your answers in the spaces provided at the bottom of the page.
Label the diagram.
Use NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in the boxes at the bottom of the page.
Living with head injuries
A. The brain acts as the control centre for the body’s physical actions and thought processes; the latter involving cognitive ability, reasoning and emotional reactions. Traumatic head injuries, resulting from a severe accident such as a car crash, manifest themselves in many different ways depending on the extent of the injury and which area or areas of the brain have been affected. Post-injury, significant changes in psycho-social behaviour, cognitive and physical ability may be present; some of these may improve over time with therapy and support, whilst others may be irreversible.
B. Cognitive interference can occur in a number of ways, for example problems with short or long term memory, reduced attention and concentration, problems with judgement and planning, spatial disorientation and slowness of thought processes and speech. Potential problems related to psycho-social changes caused by head trauma may be increased levels of anxiety and depression, impulsiveness and lack of inhibition, and high levels of agitation and emotional outbursts. In addition, physical complications may include hemiparesis (paralysis or weakening of one side of the body), seizures and spasms, impairment of vision and loss of taste.
C. The brain itself can be split into three main components: the brain stem, cerebellum and cortex. The first connects the brain to the spinal cord and regulates pulse rate, breathing, blood pressure and other vital functions while the cerebellum, which is located at the top of the brain stem, controls coordination and balance. The cortex, which is the largest section of the brain and is responsible for controlling most thought processes, can be divided into two hemispheres (the left and the right), the former regulating the ‘verbal’ functions of speech and calculation and the second the ‘visual’ functions of memory, and drawing. The visual section of the brain is the linear thinking mode, whereas the verbal is the holistic thinking mode.
D. The cortex and its two hemispheres can also be considered in the context of four discrete lobes (subdivisions of the area bounded by structural boundaries such as connective tissue) and these four areas are the locations of different thought processes. The frontal lobe, as the name suggests, is found at the front of the brain and controls personality, problem solving and reasoning skills. Behind the frontal lobe is the parietal lobe which controls sensory responses. At the base of the skull, just above the cerebellum, is the occipital lobe which controls vision and adjacent to that, below the frontal and parietal lobe, is the temporal lobe which controls speaking, listening and other aspects of language.
E. Most head-injured people will require the support of a hospital or rehabilitation facility in addition to the assistance they need from their family and close friends. In severe cases, patients may need round the clock care from a relative or care worker. Patients and their carers are often recommended to try to keep surroundings familiar and consistent in order to avoid emotional stress and to establish a regular daily routine which provides predictability and consistency; meals taken at the same time every day or social outings arranged for consistent slots throughout the week, for example.
Label the diagram below using NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each answer.